Enrique Bolaños Geyer, President of Nicaragua from January 10, 2002 – January 10, 2007
Vice President José Rizo Castellón, Alfredo Gómez Urcuyo
Preceded by Arnoldo Alemán
Succeeded by Daniel Ortega.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
Vice President of Nicaragua
In office January 10, 1997 – Octuber 24, 2000, Preceded by Julia Mena, Succeeded by Leopoldo Navarro
Born 13 May 1928, Masaya, Nicaragua, Political party Alliance for the Republic, APRE.
Enrique José Bolaños Geyer (born 13 May 1928) was the President of Nicaragua from 10 January 2002 to 10 January 2007.
President Bolaños is of Spanish and German heritage and was born in Masaya (department of Masaya).
He received his education in the United States, graduating with a Bachelor's degree in Industrial Engineering from Saint Louis University in 1962.
He publicly opposed the Sandinista controlled government of the 1980s, resulting in brief imprisonment. His family cotton farming operations, SAIMSA, were confiscated during the first Sandinista administration of the 1980s.
Bolaños served as vice president under his predecessor, Arnoldo Alemán. On 4 November 2001 he defeated Daniel Ortega of the Sandinista National Liberation Front party in the presidential elections and was sworn in as president on 10 January 2002.
He was a member of the Constitutional Liberal Party (PLC) until he broke with it to help form the Alliance for the Republic (APRE). At the beginning of his term he led an anti-Corruption campaign against his predecessor and the head of the PLC Arnoldo Alemán politically isolating himself from the influential Liberal Party. Institutional struggles for power between the legislative, executive and judicial branches resulted in great inefficiency for the Bolaños government.
Enrique Bolaños was born in Masaya on 13 May 1928 to Nicolás Bolaños Cortés (1890–1963) and wife Amanda del Rosario Geyer Abaunza, and paternal grandson of Alejandro Bolaños Cuadra (1858–1914) and wife and cousin Cándida Cortés Bolaños (1854–1918). His father, a wealthy businessman, was poisoned by an employee. He was also a maternal relative of Justo Abaunza, 25th and 27th President of Nicaragua. The Bolaños family has played a minor role in Nicaraguan politics, traditionally associated with the deep-rooted Liberal Party that brought Somoza dynasty to power in 1939. Bolaños, however, carefully aligned himself with the anti-Somoza Liberal Constitutionalist Party founded by Ramiro Sacasa Guerrero in 1968. The Bolaños family has usually maintained a hands-off approach to Nicaraguan politics, focusing rather on business endeavors.
Enrique Bolaños received his primary and secondary education in Nicaragua, and graduated from Saint Louis University with a degree in industrial engineering. He married Lila T. Abaúnza in 1949 and bore five children: Enrique José, Lucía Amanda, Jorge Alejandro (deceased, 2005), Javier Gregorio (deceased, 2007) and Alberto (deceased, 1976).
In 1952 he began a successful agro-production company, SAIMSA (Industrial Agricultural Services of Masaya), which grew to become one of the largest cotton producers in Central America. Bolaños served as an active member of the influential COSEP (Supreme Council for Private Enterprise), and served as president from 1983 to 1988. COSEP was an anti-Sandinista institution that focused on promoting free enterprise and limiting governmental interference in the private sector.
Bolaños publicly opposed Daniel Ortega's Sandinista government during the 1980s. He was arrested on 20 October 1981 for having violated censorship laws. One month later he was imprisoned again upon returning from an AIL (Association of Latin American Enterprises) conference in Venezuela. In July 1982 he was jailed after sponsoring a conference of potential American investors at his cotton plantation in Masaya. Under the government's controversial agrarian reform program SAIMSA was confiscated and reappropriated to small farmers.
After the nationalization of his business, Bolaños worked as a freelance computer programmer until his election to the vice-presidency in 1996.
Early political career
In the 1990 elections, Bolaños was denied presidential candidacy for the National Opposition Union (UNO, a coalition of multiple anti-Sandinista parties), as he was considered too stubborn and difficult to work with in the context of democratization and national reconciliation. Violeta Chamorro was chosen instead.
In 1996 Bolaños was chosen by presidential candidate and former mayor of Managua Arnoldo Alemán as vice-presidential candidate for the PLC (Liberal Constitutionalist Party). Bolaños was also elected as campaign manager for the Liberal Party in the 1996 elections. Alemán defeated Ortega with 51% of the vote, and Alemán and Bolaños were sworn in as president and vice president, respectively, on 10 January 1997. During his tenure as vice president, Bolaños kept a discrete profile even with rising allegations of corruption against Alemán and many members of his cabinet.
Following the devastation of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Bolaños was responsible for the management of foreign aid. He spearheaded a movement to review and redact Nicaragua’s laws concerning the prevention and management of natural disasters.
Bolaños was chosen as the presidential candidate for the 2001 elections at the Grand Convention of the Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) meeting in 2001. Former President Arnoldo Alemán handpicked Bolaños as his successor.
La Prensa and other Nicaraguan newspapers have since reported that Alemán chose Bolaños as an interim president. Because the Nicaraguan constitution forbids consecutive presidential terms, it is believed that Alemán sought a candidate who could be easily manipulated, allowing him to govern from behind the scenes until the 2006 elections, when he would seek re-election. Alemán has denied these allegations.
While Bolaños had the support of the powerful PLC, he was widely regarded as an American “puppet” candidate and was also seen as apathetic and lacking charisma. Many voters saw him as a weak public figure, particularly because he had failed to speak out against the rampant corruption present during Alemán’s tenure as president. Daniel Ortega, the main opposition candidate, commonly referred to Bolaños as a “candidate for the wealthy” and a “senile” old man unfit for office. He was nicknamed by some “bola de años” a pun on his surname literally translated as “ball of years.”
In August 2001 he publicly denounced corruption in the presidency, distancing himself from Alemán without publicly attacking him. Bolaños also accused Daniel Ortega of “destroying” the country’s economy during the 1980s and criticized his close ties to Fidel Castro, Hugo Chávez and Muammar al-Gaddafi.
Public polls showed Ortega and Bolaños virtually tied up to the elections held on 5 November 2001. On election day, a massive 90% voter turnout overburdened the polls. Some Nicaraguans waited in line for as much as 10 hours before casting their vote. Bolaños won the presidential elections with 56.3% of the vote, Daniel Ortega received 42.3% and Conservative Party candidate Alberto Saborio received 1.4%. International observers from the United States, United Nations and Europe declared the elections clean and fair, and there was no violence and minimal public disturbance during the elections.
Enrique Bolaños was sworn in as President of the Republic of Nicaragua on 10 January 2002 to serve a five year term (2002–2007). Two days later, he began an anti-corruption campaign to investigate and prosecute all former and current state employees who engaged in corrupt behavior.
Arnoldo Alemán, then serving as a member of the National Assembly and the Central American Parliament, was formally charged with corruption in December 2002, and was stripped of his parliamentary immunity. Alemán, along with some family members and other high-ranking party officials, was convicted of money laundering, embezzlement of over $100,000,000 and corruption. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison from which he was recently released.
Immediately following the prosecution of Alemán, Bolaños was kicked out of the PLC – the party which Alemán still retains strong influence over – and helped to form another political party, APRE (Alliance for the Republic).
In September 2005 Bolaños publicly announced what he called a “slow motion coup” by the joint efforts of the PLC and the FSLN. The executive branch was partially stripped of its powers to appoint ministers and public officials, but with backing from the international community, particularly the OAS, the EU and the United States, any constitutional changes were postponed until the following year. This reversal coincided with passage of the CAFTA by the Nicaraguan legislature.
Bolaños has been frequently criticized for his previous close ties to Alemán. It has been argued that during his term Bolaños received a substantial pension from his tenure as vice-president, as well as a $300,000 a year salary for the presidency. However, the monthly presidential salary was reduced at the outset of the Bolanos administration, and the pension from his tenure as vice-president was eliminated by the National Assembly.
Bolaños attempted to work closely with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in attempts to reduce Nicaragua’s foreign debt by means of cooperation with Structural Adjustment Programs. He also created a long-term National Development Plan meant to reduce poverty and diversify Nicaragua’s traditionally agriculture dominated economy.
In the 2006 presidential election campaign Bolaños' Alliance for the Republic party joined the Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance, whose candidate Eduardo Montealegre took second place.
Bolaños turned over the presidency to his longtime political opponent Daniel Ortega on 10 January 2007. By nature of his status as outgoing President, he was legally entitled to a seat in the new session of the National Assembly, but has since remained out of the political arena and never assumed his seat. He also faced a series of verbal allegations from opposition party members ranging from mismanagement of public funds to human trafficking, however evidence was never presented and he was never formally accused at the courts nor charged. Bolaños argued that the accusations were false, politically motivated.
Læs også artiklen fra 2006 Hvad blev der af ”den nye æra”? af Preben Høeg Rasmussen.
Enrique Bolaños biblioteca
Ex-præsident Enrique Bolaños udgiver på internet hans eget site:
på spansk med en sektion på engelsk:
hvor man kan læse hans eget syn på hans rolle, diverse taler, finde dokumenter osv.
Hans selvbiografi lyder sådan (spansk):
Enrique Bolaños Geyer nació en Masaya, Nicaragua, el 13 de mayo de 1928, tercer hijo de cuatro hijos varones del matrimonio de Don Nicolás Bolaños Cortés y Doña Amanda Geyer Abaúnza. Recibió su formación escolar en los colegios parroquiales católicos Monseñor Lezcano de Masaya, Colegio Salesiano Cardenal Juan Cagliero de Masaya y Colegio Centro-América, de jesuitas, en Granada.
Se graduó de Ingeniero Industrial (B.S.) en la universidad de jesuitas, Saint Louis University, en Saint Louis, Missouri, Estados Unidos. Luego atendió el Programa de Alta Gerencia del Instituto Centroamericano de Administración de Empresas (incae) para directivos y presidentes de empresas.
Se casó en diciembre de 1949 con su novia de muchacho, Lila T Abaúnza con quien procreó cinco hijos: cuatro varones y una mujer. Tres de sus hijos han fallecido y su esposa falleció en 2008. Tiene 13 nietos y 4 bisnietos.
Los altos precios del algodón causados por la Guerra de Corea a comienzos de los años 1950 introdujo a don Enrique a la siembra del algodón que, al correr de los años en sociedad con sus hermanos Alejandro y Nicolás, y con don Enrique al frente como presidente del consejo de administración, se consolidó como el Grupo Bolaños-Saimsa, con sede en Masaya, y que llegó a ser la empresa algodonera agroindustrial más grande del país.
Desde su arranque como empresario hace más de medio siglo, el Ing. Enrique Bolaños Geyer ha participado en diversos negocios, siempre en el sector privado desempeñándose en la gerencia general, la dirección de producción o la presidencia de las juntas directivas de las siguientes empresas:
• En Calzado Lorena, S.A., de Masaya; Compañía Leonesa de Productos Lácteos, S.A. (Leche El Hogar), de León; Impresora Serigráfica, S.A., de Managua.
• Desde 1964 en el Grupo Bolaños-Saimsa compuesto por Nicolás Bolaños Sucesores, S.A.; y Servicio Agrícola Industrial Masaya, S.A. (saimsa,); y a medida que prosperaba el negocio fueron naciendo y agregándose diez empresas más, hasta 1985 cuando el régimen sandinista confiscó todas estas empresas que integraban el Grupo Bolaños-Saimsa.
El Ing. Bolaños perteneció a las siguientes organizaciones e instituciones del sector privado: Presidente de la Asociación de Algodoneros de Oriente adado (1979-1982); Director de la Unión de Productores Agropecuarios upanic (1979-1983); Director de la Cámara de Industrias de Nicaragua cadin (1979-1986); Presidente del Consejo Directivo del Instituto Nicaragüense de Desarrollo inde (1983-1986); Presidente del Consejo Superior de la Empresa Privada cosep (1983-1988); Presidente de la Federación de Entidades Privadas de Centroamérica y Panamá (1985); y miembro del Directorio Nacional del incae (1983-1990).
Autor de diversos artículos y publicaciones, entre ellas “¿Cómo Vamos? – Algunos Indicadores Económicos Ilustrados 1982”; “Memorándums de la Presidencia” 1985-86; “Nicaragua: 165 Años de Vida Independiente” (1987); columna “Ideas para Todos” 1983-84; “Nicaragua 1984 - Economía” 1984; “El pequeño raterito” 1988; La Guerra antiimperialista” 1986; El Plan Azul y Blanco 1989;…
El 4 de octubre de 1995 cuando se convirtió en jefe de la campaña electoral de la AL (Alianza Liberal) y el 8 de mayo de 1996 esta Alianza lo eligió candidato a la Vicepresidencia de la República en la fórmula Alemán-Bolaños que se impuso con el 51% de los votos derrotando a la fórmula sandinista Ortega-Caldera.
En enero de 1997 asumió pues, la vicepresidencia de la República y durante la emergencia nacional causada por el huracán Mitch en octubre de 1998 fue delegado por el Gobierno para presidir el Comité Nacional de Emergencia y con esa experiencia elaboró y logró la promulgación de la ley del “Sistema Nacional de Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres Naturales - sinapred.
En el 2001 lanzó su candidatura a la presidencia de la República junto con el Dr. José Rizo a la vicepresidencia para el siguiente periodo 2002-2007, bajo el lema “gobernabilidad, democracia y transparencia: muchos retos, dos opciones, una alternativa” que hizo énfasis en la creación de empleos productivos y en el desarrollo sostenible del país. Sus dos frases populares resumieron una propuesta realista: “hagamos un trato” y “remanguémosnos las camisas”, frases con las que ofrecía crear oportunidades para que cada quien pudiera aprovecharlas para aplicar su propio ingenio y esfuerzo como responsable de la solución de sus propios problemas. Así obtuvo un contundente triunfo con el 56,3% de los votos derrotando a la fórmula sandinista Daniel Ortega-Agustín Jarquín.
Atrajo vigoroso incremento en creación de nuevas zonas francas, en afluencia del turismo, en inversiones en producción y demanda laboral en el agro mediante el plan de libra por libra, en pequeñas y medianas industrias para manufactura de artículos de exportación, y, sobre todo, el Tratado de Libre Comercio de Centroamérica con Estados Unidos (cafta), y etcéteras, que supieron aprovechar los nicaragüenses en su propio beneficio que redundó en la creación de más de un cuarto de millón de nuevos empleos productivos.
Ha recibido 192 diplomas, placas, medallas, llaves de ciudad, collares, condecoraciones, bandas, en su mayoría otorgadas por instituciones y gremios del sector privado nicaragüense durante su labor de los años 1980 en la presidencia del cosep, por instituciones empresariales internacionales, académicas, de alcaldes y de gobiernos amigos.